Antivirus, often called antivirus software, or anti-malware, is a computer program used to detect and deter viruses and malware.
An application is another word for software – programs that are run on hardware such as a computer or smartphone. This is what the word “app” comes from.
Business continuity
The plan and procedure for dealing with business disruption or operational emergencies. Every organisation needs a business continuity plan. See more about our services here.

The maximum rate of data transfer across any given path. For example, how much information you receive per second over your broadband connection.


Bit is short for binary digit. It’s the smallest unit of measurement used to quantify computer data.

Cloud computing
The delivery and storage of on-demand IT resources over the internet. Instead of having a physical server on your site (known as on-premise), the information is stored on an offsite data centre and accessed online. This opens up real possibilities for efficiency, cost savings and remote working. Find out more about it here.
Cyber attack

An attempt to steal data, disable computers or generally hack private information from people’s computers and profiles. These are on the rise and it’s critically important to protect yourself against them.

Cyber Essentials
A government-backed scheme to help organisations protect themselves against common online threats. It’s well worth getting certified. Not only does it ensure that you’re protected from common threats, but it certifies it publicly to reassure partners and customers. Find out how we can help here.
The practice of defending your online profile and presence, protecting systems, networks, and programs from cyber attacks.
Data breach
A data breach is when information is stolen from a server, computer, or other digital space. It may involve theft of confidential information such as identity, medical history, financial information, or even matters of national security.
Data protection

The protection of data by way of backing up data or having a plan in place to deal with any data disasters, such as breaches or losses. Our JustProtect service is a preventative and reactionary tool against data disaster.

Taking scrambled coded text or other data and converting it back into readable text.
Disaster recovery

The recovery of a data breach or data loss, often using a software to re-establish IT infrastructure. You can set up a disaster recovery roadmap here.


The time a computer system or machine is out of service or not working. Downtime is all cost and no benefit. It’s essential to minimise it, and that’s why disaster recovery plans are essential.


A firewall monitors incoming and outgoing computer traffic, identifying and blocking online threats. It’s a critically important part of your defences against cyber attacks.


Firmware is basically software that exists in hardware to help it run. It acts as an interface between hardware and operating systems. Without firmware, almost no electronic devices would work. That’s why it’s essential to keep it up to date through patch management.

Flash drive

A small, portable storage device. It has no moving parts, unlike alternative such as hard drives. Often, this will look like a small USB stick.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

A communications protocol used for transmitting files between one computer and another.


A unit of data, made up of multiple ‘bytes’. You might hear this used to describe the amount of data available, such as on a storage device.


Most often associated with malicious activity, a hacker is someone who gains unauthorised access to a computer system to obtain data.


Within your IT infrastructure, hardware is all the parts you can physically touch – computers, keyboards, servers, routers and so on.


A device that is connected to a computer network, such as a computer or smartphone.


A wireless access point, which allows devices to connect to the internet on the go.

LAN (Local Area Network)

A network contained within a small geographical location or area. This usually would be the same building.


An invasive or harmful software, code, or file, often delivered over an internet connection or network, that infects a device or steals data.

Often in the context of data, this describes moving data from one system, or software, to another.
A modem is a device used to connect your premises to the internet.
A circuit board that stores and connects other electrical elements inside a computer.
MSP (Managed Service Provider)
A third party who manages all the IT infrastructure of a premises, but they do so remotely.
Multi-factor authentication

Multi-step login progress that prompts the user to enter more information than just a password. For example, after entering your password, an authorisation code is sent to a designated mobile number.

One-time password

A password that is only used one time, and only valid for one authentication. Often a code, or an alphanumeric string of characters.

OS (Operating System)

Responsible for executing all processes, file management and other tasks, an operating system is an interface between a user and hardware.

Password management

The process of securing, storing, and managing passwords, creating best practices for users to follow. See how Keeper Security effectively manages your passwords:

Patch management

Applying updates to firmware, software, and drivers to protect against vulnerabilities.


An online fraud, usually used to trick people into giving out sensitive or confidential information, such as passwords or financial data.


A software program that can be added to a host program to add extra features.

Part of a computer, the processor performs operations on the information that is put into it.
Proxy server
This is a gateway between you and the internet. It’s a dedicated computer on the internet that has an IP address of its own and acts as an intermediary.
RAM (Random Access Memory)
A computer’s short-term memory, where data can be quickly read and modified in any order.
A type of malware that prevents users from accessing their device and their stored data.
Creates the network inside your premises, sending and receiving data on your computer network.
A piece of computer hardware or software that makes resources available to another network.
The same thing as an application. Software is a program or group of programs run by a device like a computer or smartphone. You’re much more likely to use the term “app” on smartphones. An example of a piece of software would be Microsoft Word.
Email advertisements sent to recipients without their consent or request. Spam is used for all sorts of unwelcome purposes, including directing you to install malware. It’s incredibly important to protect yourself with anti-phishing training and anti-spam filters.

A program secretly installed on someone’s computer or other electronic devices that allows the intruder to spy on you, secretly record information or track your online activity. Protect yourself with our defence service, JustSecure.

Trojan horse

Disguised as legitimate code or standard programming. When downloaded onto a computer, a trojan horse contains a malicious function.


A problem-solving process used to locate and correct issues with electronics such as devices, or software systems.

Two-factor authentication

The same principle as multi-factor authentication, it requires two forms of identification to access an account or data. This could be a text code or using a third party authenticator app.


Indicating that a system is functional, uptime spots the success level on your devices or in systems and hardware.

VPN (Virtual Private Network)

A service that helps your internet connection stay private, and protected, online.

WAN (Wide Area Network)

A network of networks covering a large geographical location and linking smaller networks – such as LANs.

WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network)

A wireless distribution method, which allows two or more devices to be connected wirelessly.